新濠天地网上娱乐平台

2017-11-16 发布 2947 次浏览

动名词的基础知识


动名词,指的是动词ing形式的一种,兼有动词和名词特征的非限定动词。它可以支配宾语,也能被副词修饰。动名词有时态和语态的变化。新濠天地网上娱乐平台中的动名词是由动词变化而来。


动名词的结构形式

否定结构


动名词的否定结构由not 动名词组成。例如:

Trying without success is better than not trying at all.实验没有成功也比不实验好。

  He hated himself for not having work hard.他悔恨自己没有用功。

  I’m sorry for not having telephoned you before.很抱歉,没有提早给你打电话。

  He felt sorry for not having done the work well.他为没有把工作做好感到难过。

  I fancy it has done you a lot of good not going.我看不去对你倒好了。(not going 是动名词一般式的否定形式)

  There is no denying the fact that he si diligent. (no denying 也是动名词一般式的否定)


复合结构


通常情况下,动名词的逻辑主语为谓语动词的主语。如果动名词动作的发出者不是谓语动的主语时,则需要有自己的逻辑主语物主代词或名词所有格加动名词就构成了动名词的复合结构,这种结构在句中可以作主语,宾语等。

1.逻辑主语是有生命的名词作主语时,必须用名词或代词所有格,作宾语时(尤其在口语中),也可用名词普通格或人称代词宾格。如:

  Do you think my going there will be of any help?

  你看我去会有什么帮助吗?(主语)这里包含着一个宾语从句。

  The student’s knowing English well helps him in learning French.这位学生通晓新濠天地网上娱乐平台对他学法语很有帮助。(主语)

  Do you mind my(me) smoking你介意我抽烟吗?(宾语)

  They insist on Mary’s (Mary) going with them there.他们坚持要玛丽跟他们一起去那儿。(介词宾语)

2.逻辑主语是无生命名词是,通常只用名词普通格。如:

  Do you hear the rain pattering on the roof?你听见雨点打在屋顶上了吗?

  Is there any hope of our team winning the match我们对赢得比赛有希望吗?

3.逻辑主语是指示代词或不定代词this ,that,somebody,someone,nobody,none,anybody,anyone 时,只用普通格。如:

  She was woken up by somebody shouting outside.她被外面喊叫的人吵醒了。

  带有逻辑主语的动名词称为动名词的复合结构。当动名词的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致时,要在动名词之前加上物主代词或名词所有格,这便构成了动名词的复合结构。其中物主代词(名词所有格)是逻辑上的主语,动名词是逻辑上的谓语。动名词复合结构在句中可作主语、宾语、表语等,分别相当于一个主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句。如:

  Her coming to help encouraged all of us. 他来帮忙鼓舞了我们所有人。(=That she came to help encouraged all of us.)

  Jane’s being careless caused so much trouble. 简的粗心惹来了不少麻烦。(=That Jane was careless caused so much trouble.)

  What’s troubling them is their not having enough food. 烦扰他们的是食物不足。(=What’s troubling them is that they have not enough food.)

  在口语中,如果动名词复合结构作宾语,其中的物主代词常用人称代词宾格,名词所有格常用名词普通格来代替,但在句首作主语时不能这样来代替。如:

  Would you mind my/me using your computer? 用下你的电脑介意吗?

  The father insisted on his son’s/his son going to college. 爸爸坚决要求儿子上大学。

  Mary’s (不可用Mary) being ill made her mother upset.玛丽病了,使她妈妈很着急。

  His (不可用Him)smoking made his family angry. 他抽烟使他一家人非常生气。

  在下列情况下动名词的逻辑主语必须用名词的普通格或人称代词宾语:

  a. 无命名词

  The baby was made awake by the door suddenly shutting. 这个婴儿被猛烈的关门声吵醒。

  b. 有生命名词但表示泛指意义

  Have you ever heard of women practising boxing? 你听说过妇女练拳击吗?

  c. 两个以上的有生命名词并列

  Do you remember your parents and me telling about this? 你记得你父母和我都告诉过你这事吗?


一般式


(1) 动名词的一般式: doing

  所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,或在谓语动词表示的动作之后。如:

  We are very interested in collecting stamps.我们对集邮很感兴趣。

  His coming will be of great help to us .他来对我们大有帮助。

  但是有些明确表示时间的动词和介词 after,on,upon,或for之后,常用一般式代替完成式,表示动作发生在谓语动作之前。如:

  I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time.我永远不会忘记第一次看到长城的情景。

  On hearing that bad news,the mother couldn’t help crying.一听到这个糟糕的消息,母亲就禁不住哭了起来。

  Excuse me for coming late.我来晚了,请原谅。

  Thank you for giving us so much help.谢谢你给了我们这么多帮助。


(2) 动名词的完成式: having done

  所表示的动作或状态在谓语动词之前完成或结束。

  He regrets not having taken part in the work.他后悔没有参加这项工作。

  We were praised for having finished the work ahead of time.我们因提前完成了这项工作而受到了表扬。


(3) 动名词的被动式:being done

  当动名词的逻辑主语是行为承受者时,用被动语态。如:

  I like being given harder work.我喜欢接受难点的工作。

  She is proud of being admitted into the university.她为被大学录取而感到自豪。

  The meeting was put off without his having been consulted.会议延期并未和他商量。

  He doesn’t mind having been criticized.他不介意过去受到的批评。


动名词的用法

作主语


Reading is an art. 读书是一种艺术。

Climbing mountains is really fun. 爬山真是有趣。

Working in these conditions is not a pleasure but a suffer. 在这种工作条件下工作不是一件愉快的事而是一件痛苦的事。

动名词作主语,谓语动词一般用单三形式

动名词作主语,在动词的基础上加Ing,使该动词或动词短语,有名词的各种特征,可作名词灵活使用。如:


It is no use/no good crying over spilt milk.覆水难收

  It is a waste of time persuading such a person to join us. 劝说这样的人加入真是浪费时间。

  It was hard getting on the crowded street car. 上这种拥挤的车真难。

  It is fun playing with children. 和孩子们一起玩真好。

  There is no joking about such matters. 对这种事情不是开玩笑。


动名词作主语的几种类型


动名词可以在句子中充当名词所能充当的多种句子成分。在这里仅就动名词在句子中作主语的情况进行讨论。


动名词作主语有如下几种常见情况:

1. 直接位于句首做主语。例如:

Swimming is a good sport in summer.

2. 用 it 作形式主语,把动名词(真实主语)置于句尾作后置主语。

动名词做主语时,不太常用 it 作先行主语,多见于某些形容词及名词之后。例如:

  It is no use telling him not to worry.

  常见的能用于这种结构的形容词还有:better,wonderful,enjoyable,interesting,foolish,difficult,useless,senseless,worthwhile,等。

  注意:important,essential,necessary 等形容词不能用于上述结构。

3. 用于“There be”结构中。例如:

There is no saying when he'll come.很难说他何时回来。

4. 用于布告形式的省略结构中。例如:

No smoking ( =Smokingisnotallowedhere ). (禁止吸烟)

No parking. (禁止停车)


5. 动名词的复合结构作主语

当动名词有自己的逻辑主语时,常可以在前面加上一个名词或代词的所有格,构成动名词的复合结构(——这时,名词或代词的所有格做动名词的逻辑主语)。动名词的复合结构也可以在句中作主语。例如:

Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us.


6.例词

shopping fishing cycling这些都是很常见的动名词

动名词作主语与动词不定式作主语的比较

动词不定式和动名词都可以用作主语。在意义上相近。但动名词多用来表示泛指或抽象动作,不定式多用来表示特指或具体动作。比较:

Smoking is not good for health.

  It is not good for you to smoke so much.

注意:

1) 在口语中,用动名词作主语位于句首的较不定式多见。

2) 在“It is no use...”,“It is no good...”,“It is fun...”,“It is a waste of time...”等句型中,通常用动名词作真实主语:

It is no use/good/a waste of time talking about that.

  *It is no use/good/a waste of time to talk about that.

3) 在疑问句中,通常用动名词的复合结构,而不用不定式的复合结构作主语:

Does your saying that mean anything to him?

  *Does for you to say that mean anything to him?

4) 在“There be”句型中,只能用动名词,而不能用不定式作主语:

There is no telling what will happen.

  It is impossible to tell what will happen.

5) 当句子中的主语和表语都是非限定动词时,要遵循前后一致的原则,主语和表语在形式上要求统一:

Seeing is believing.

  *To see is to believe.


作宾语


1.作动词的宾语

  某些动词后出现非限定性动词时只能用动名词作宾语,不能用不定式。常见的此类动词有:

admit,appreciate,excuse,stand,advise,allow,permit,avoid,consider,enjoy,finish,give up,cannot help(can't help),imagine,include,keep,understand,keep on,mind,report,risk,miss,put off,delay,practise,resist,suggest,depend on,think about,set about,succeed in,worry about,burst out,insist on,feel like,be used to,get used to,devote…to…,look forward to,pay attention to,get down to,escape 等。如:

They went on walking and never stopped talking.他们继续走,说个不停。

  I found it pleasant walking along the seashore.在海滩上走真是乐事。

  Mark often attempts to escape being fined whenever he breaks traffic regulations.

  每当马克违反交通规则时,他常常企图逃避罚款的处分。

  有些动词之后既可接动词不定式,又可接动名词,可把这类动词分为三种类型:两种形式所表达的含义基本相同,可以互换。这类动词有:

  attempt ,begin,cease,continue,intend,omit,start,cannot bear,decline,disdain,loathe,neglect,commence。例如:

  They ceased talking/to talk.他们停止说话。

  Prices will continue to rise/rising.物价将继续上扬。

  What do you intend to do/doing next?你下一步打算干什么?

宾语用不定式和动名词所表达的含义略有变化。用不定式作宾语时,表示特定的一次性的未来动作;用动名词则表示一般的行为,或者是目前正在进行的行为。也可以说,动名词表示泛指的动作,而不定式表示特指的动作。常这样用的动词有:hate,like,love,prefer,dread等。

例如:

Would you like to go with me?你想跟我一起走吗?

He preferred to do this rather than do that.他宁愿做这件事,而不愿做那件事。


2.作介词的宾语

  动词+介词+动名词

  例如:The rain prevented us from completing the work.下雨妨碍我们完成工作。

  She complains of the book being too difficult.她抱怨这本书太难。

  形容词+介词+动名词

  例如:I know who is responsible for breaking the window.我知道窗户是谁打破的。

  名词+介词+动名词

  例如:There are many ways of doing it.有许多方法可以做这件事。

  We are thinking of making a new plan for the next term.我们正考虑为下学期制定新的计划。

  Shall we have a rest or get down to doing our work?我们休息呢还是开始干活?

  there be和it is也可变为动名词there being 和it being与介词连用。

  例如:The car stoppedbecause of there being no fuel in the tank.

  因为油箱里没有油,所以汽车停了下来。

  介词+动名词也可在句中作状语,表示时间、条件等。

  例如:On leaving school,he went into business.一离开学校,他就投身到商业中去了。


3.作形容词的宾语

  The music is well worth listening to more than once. 这种曲子很值得多听几遍。

  We are busy preparing for the coming sports meet. 我们正为马上到来的运动会忙着做准备。

作表语

动名词作表语时句子主语常是表示无生命的事物的名词或what引导的名词性从句。表语动名词与主语通常是对等的关系,表示主语的内容,主语、表语可互换位置。如果句中的主语和表语同为动词时,要注意保持两个动词在形式上的一致。

例:

Your task is cleaning the windows.你的任务就是擦窗户。(Cleaning the windows is your task.)

What I hate most is being laughed at.我最痛恨的就是被别人嘲笑。(Being laughed at is what I hate most.)

The most popular pastime is playing chess.最大众化的消遣是下棋(The most popular pastime is to play chess.)

The only thing that interests her is working.她唯一感兴趣的事就是工作.


作定语


动名词作定语往往表示被修饰词的某种用途。如:

a walking stick =a stick for walking=a stick which is used for walking

  a washing machine=a machine for washing=a machine which is used for washing

  a reading room=a room for reading=a room which is used for reading

  a measuring tape=a tape for measuring=a tape which is used for measuring

  sleeping pills=pills for sleeping=pills which is used for sleeping


动名词的用法讲解视频


动词的非谓语形式相关的其他视频

非谓语动词讲解

非谓语动词之不定式

非谓语动词之-ing形式

非谓语动词之过去分词

非谓语动词之过去分词

动名词用法讲解

过去分词

with复合结构和独立主格


动名词的用法练习题

暂无相关练习题,稍后会更新


动名词其他相关知识点


在学习动名词的用法之后,您可能还需要了解下以下内容:


动词的非谓语形式大全快速导航
不定式动名词现在分词
过去分词非谓语形式的用法比较独立主格结构