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关系代词的基础知识


关系代词指的是代表先行词,同时在从句中作一定的句子成分。关系代词有主格,宾格和属格之分,并有指人与指物之分。关系代词用来引导定语从句。

语法是语言的组织规律,任何人在使用语言时,不管他是否学过语法,但都必须合乎语法。另外,总结语法本身的规律也能加深我们对语言的理解,让我们能够真正熟练地运用语言。


关系代词的用法

1. 关系代词的用法。


主要的关系代词有 that, who, whom, whose, which, as 等。其中who, whom 只用于指人,which, as 只用于指事物,whose, that 既可于指人也可用于指物。关系代词在定语从句主要用于主语、宾语(可以省略)、表语或定语:


He is the man who [that] lives next door. 他就是就是住在隔壁的那个人。

How do you like the photo that [which] I took? 你觉得我拍的这张照片怎么样?

This is the same watch as I lost. 这块表跟我丢失的那块一样。

I want to find someone with whom I could discuss music. 我想找个能和我谈音乐的人。

She received an invitation from her boss, which came as a surprise. 她收到了老板的邀请,这是她意想不到的。


2. that 与 which的用法区别。


两者都可指物,常可互换。其区别主要在于:


(1) 引导非限制性定语从句时,通常要用which:

She received an invitation from her boss, which came as a surprise. 她收到了老板的邀请,这是她意想不到的。


(2) 直接放在介词后作宾语时,通常要用which:

The tool with which he is working is called a hammer. 他干活用的那个工具叫做锤子。


(3) 当先行词是下列不定代词或被它们修饰时much, little, none, all, few, every(thing), any(thing), no(thing) 等时,通常用that:

There was little that the enemy could do but surrender. 敌人无法,只有投降了。

All [Everything] that can be done must be done.  凡能做的事都必须做。


(4) 当先行词有the very, the only, the same 等修饰时,通常用that:

This is the only example that I know. 我知道的例子只有这一个。

Those are the very words that he used. 那是他的原话。


(5) 当先行词有形容词最高级或序数词(包括last, next等)等修饰时,通常用that:

This is the best dictionary that I've ever used. 这是我用过的最好的词典。

The first thing that you should do is to work out a plan. 你应该做的第一件事是订个计划。


(6) 当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,通常用that:

China is not the country (that) it was. 中国已不是过去的中国了。


(7) 当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时,通常用that:

They talked about the persons and things that most impressed them. 他们谈论了使他们印象最深的人和事。


(8) 当要避免重复时:

Which is the course that we are to take? 我们选哪门课程?


3. that与who的用法区别。


(1) 两者均可指人,有时可互换:

All that [who] heard him were delighted. 所有听了他讲话的人都很高兴。

Have you met anybody that [who] has been to Paris? 你遇见过到过巴黎的人吗?

He is the only one among us that [who] knows Russian.他是我们中间唯一懂俄语的人。


(2) 但是在下列情况,通常要用 that:

①当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时:

I made a speech on the men and things that I had seen abroad. 我就我在国外所见到的人和事作了报告。

②当先行词是who时(为避免重复):

Who was it that won the World Cup in 1982? 谁赢得了1982年的世界杯?

③当关系代词在定语从句中作表语时(可省略):

Tom is not the boy (that) he was. 汤姆这孩子已不是以前那个样子了。


4. as与which的用法区别


(1) 引导限制性定语从句时,在such, as, the same后只能用as,其他情况用 which:

I never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过他讲那样的故事。

It's the same story as I heard yesterday. 这故事跟我昨天听到的一样。

This is the photo which shows my house. 这张照片拍的是我的住宅。


(2) 引导非限制性定语从句时,有时两者可互换:

I live a long way from work, as [which] you know. 我住得离工作单位很远,这你是知道的。


(3) 但在,在以下情况引导非限制性定语从句时,两者不可换用:


① 当从句位于主句前面时,只用 as:

As is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. 月球每月绕地球转一周,这是每个人都清楚的。


② as 引导的非限制性定语从句应与主句在意义上和谐一致,which无此限制:

He went abroad, as [which] was expected. 他出国了,这是大家预料到的。

He went abroad, which was unexpected. 他出国了,这让大家感到很意外。(不用as)


③ as 引导非限制性定语从句时,先行词通常不能是主句中某个具体的词,而应是整个句子、整个短语或某个短语推断出来的概念,而which 则无此限制:

The river, which flows through London, is called the Thames. 这条流经伦敦的河叫泰晤士河。(不用as)


④ 当as 引导非限制性定语从句作主语时,其谓语通常应是连系动词,而不宜是其他动词,而 which则无此限制:

She has married again, as [which] seemed natural. 她又结婚了,这似乎很自常。

She has married again, which delighted us. 她又结婚了,这使我们很高兴。(不用as)


5. who与whom的用法区别。


两者均只用于人,从理论上说,who 为主格,whom为宾格:


Where's the girl who sells the tickets? 卖票的女孩在哪里?

The author whom you criticized in your view has written a letter in reply. 你在评论中批评的那个作者已写了一封回信。

但实际上,除非在正式文体中,宾格关系代词 whom 往往省略不用,或用who或that代之:

The man (that, who, whom) you met just now is called Jim. 你刚遇见的那个人叫吉姆。


不过,在以下几种情况值得注意:


(1) 直接跟在介词后面作宾语时,只能用 whom,而且不能省略:

She brought with her three friends, none of whom I had ever met before. 她带了3个朋友来,我以前都没见过。


(2) 引导非限制性定语从句且作宾语时,who 和 whom均可用,但以用 whom 为佳,此时也不能省略:

This is Jack, who [whom] you haven't met before. 这是杰克,你以前没见过。


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